Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (www.apnic.net)

Regional internet registry for the Asia Pacific region administering IP addresses for the Asia Pacific.



Portmanteau of ‘binary digit’

The basic unit of information in computing and digital communications.



A wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between devices (fixed or mobile) over short distances using a short-range wireless connection.


Blu-ray disc

Often referred to as ‘Blu-ray’ is a digital optical disc data storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. It is mainly used for video and video games.



web browser

A software application for accessing information on the internet. Browsers are used on a range of devices. It is not the same thing as a search engine, which is just a website that provides links to other websites. E.g. Google Chrome, Safari, Firefox, Microsoft Edge.



Closed Circuit Television



Compact Disc


Central Authority

An agency or organisation designated to facilitate the implementation and operation of an international treaty in public and private international law. In international cooperation for transnational criminal law matters, it is the national body responsible for making, receiving and executing requests for mutual legal assistance and extradition, or transmitting such requests to another Central Authority for execution.



Cloud storage

Cloud computing

Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage where the digital data is stored in pools (a pool is a collection of resources kept ready to use) and said to be ‘on the cloud’. Physical storage can be across multiple servers, which are typically owned and managed by a hosting company. Cloud storage providers are responsible for keeping the data available and accessible, and the physical environment secure.

Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources (i.e. cloud storage and computing power) without direct active management by the user.


computer network

A group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols (such as IP) over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on, or provided by, network notes. The nodes can be classified by many means and are identified by hostnames and network addresses.

Computer networks can support many applications and services such as access to the world wide web, digital video and audio, shared use of application and storage servers and use of email and instant messaging applications.



Small files stored on a user’s computer by a web browser while browsing a website. Cookies were designed for websites to remember useful information such as items chosen in an online store, or previously entered names, passwords and payment card numbers.



Child Sexual Abuse Material



Communication Service Provider

A type of service provider that transports information electronically and encompasses public and private companies in the telecommunications, internet, cable, satellite and managed services businesses.



Refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of the crime, or it may be the target of the crime.



Any sequence of one or more symbols and requires interpretation to become information. Can be singular, plural or a mass noun.


data storage device

storage device

Any device for storing information or data (e.g. CD, DVD, USB).


An organised collection of data that be accessed in many ways, but generally stored and accessed electronically.


digital forensics

A branch of forensic science related to the recovery and investigation of material found in computer systems, digital devices and other storage media with the aim of admissibility in court. Originally referred to as ‘computer forensics’ it has expanded to encompass investigation of all devices capable of storing digital data.


domain name


A domain name is an identification string that defines an area within the internet and serve to identify internet resources (i.e. computers, networks, services) with a text label that is easier to memorise than the numbers used in internet protocols. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS).

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It is sometimes compared to being a type of phonebook for the internet.



A small piece of computer hardware that connects to a port on another device to provide additional functionality.

Originally ‘dongle’ referred to software protection dongles, but now is used more broadly to mean any small hardware that plugs into a computer.




A Denial of Service (DoS) attack is a cyber-attack where perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to intended users by disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a large-scale DoS attack where the perpetrator uses more than one unique IP address or machines and incoming traffic floods the victim from many different sources.



Digital Video Disc


electronic evidence

Is any information generated, stored or transmitted using electronic devices that may be relied upon in court. To guarantee that the evidence is accepted in court, it is necessary to obtain the information following processes using specialised personnel and operating within an adequate legal framework.



The process of encoding information.



Global Positioning System


hard drive

A device used for storing large amounts of data



Physical components making up a computer system (e.g. keyboard, monitor, mouse)



hosting provider

A hosting provider or internet/web hosting service is a service that allows individuals or organisations to make (or host) their website available via the world wide web. Hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned for use by clients as well as providing internet connectivity.



Hypertext Markup Language

HTML is used for writing documents for web servers.



Hypertext Transfer Protocol (or HTTPs is Secure HTTP)

HTTP is a protocol with the necessary agility and velocity to distribute and handle multimedia information systems over the Internet.



Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

Entity that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation etc. IANA is part of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).



International Criminal Police Organization


IP address

Internet Protocol address

IP Addresses are the fundamental type of source of information available on the internet showing where data packages are to be delivered. IP addresses are expressed as a chain of numbers separated by decimal points and are used to represent and identify a computer on the internet.

IPv4: e.g.

IPv6: e.g. 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:0000:8a2e:0372:4688



Internet Service Provider

Is an organisation that provides access to the internet, can be community or privately owned, and non-profit or for profit. E.g. Solomon Telekom, Vodafone, Digicel, TPG.



Local Area Network


letters rogatory

A formal letter of request from a court to a foreign court for some type of judicial assistance (e.g. collecting evidence, interviewing witnesses).



Register of determined events generated by the operating system or application for a period of time




mutual assistance or mutual legal assistance

The process countries use to obtain government-to-government assistance in criminal investigations and prosecutions.


MAC address

Media Access Control address

A unique identifier specific to the network card inside a computer XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (X represents digits or letters A to F). Also referred to as the hardware address or Ethernet address.



Mutual Assistance Criminal Matters Act



Portmanteau of malicious software. A program with the objective to cause damage to computers, systems or networks and users.



mutual assistance request


memory card

Devices used to store digital information, often used in digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers etc.



Information about data. There are many types of metadata which can be used to summarise basic information about data which can make it easier to track or work with specific data.

E.g. metadata can provide information about how and when a file was created, received, accessed and modified and by whom.

E.g. digital image can include metadata that describes how large picture is, colour depth, image resolution, when image created.



mutual legal assistance treaty

An agreement between two or more countries for the purpose of gathering and exchanging information to enforce public or criminal laws.



Portmanteau of modulator demodulator

Hardware device that allows a computer or another device (i.e. router, switch) to connect to the internet. It ‘modulates; an analogue signal from a telephone or cable wire to a digital data that a computer can recognise, and vice versa. Modems are often classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time (e.g. bit/s).

The first modems were ‘dial-up’ meaning they have to dial a phone number to connect to an ISP. Modern modems are typically DSL (digital subscriber line) or cable modems, considered to be broadband devices.



National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children




Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application that partitions tasks between peers where peers are equal. P2P protocol uses the internet for the interchange and download of files. Clients using P2P networks do not have fixed IP addresses and servers will only have a listing of clients and file searches.



Is a type of cyberattack where a ‘pharmer’ redirects a website’s traffic to another site that is under their control. Pharming ca be done by changing the hosts file on a victim’s computer, or by exploiting a vulnerability in DNS server software.



Is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information or data (i.e. username, password, credit card details). Phishing techniques often involve fake emails (email spoofing), text or instant messaging that direct users to enter personal information on a fake website that looks legitimate.



Pacific Island Law Offices’ Network



In computer networking, a proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.



Pacific Transnational Crime Network



Is a networking device that determines the next network point that a packet should be forwarded towards its destination. Routers essentially direct internet traffic.



A piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices (referred to as ‘clients’).


service provider

Broad term to encompass a provider of services that transports information electronically. For example, internet service provider, email provider, news provider (press), entertainment provider (music, movies), search, online shopping site.


social media

Are interactive computer-mediated technologies or tools that allow people or companies to create, share or exchange information, ideas, pictures, and/or videos in virtual communities and networks.E.g. Facebook, TikTok, YouTube



Computer software or software is a program designed to perform specific tasks (e.g. word processing, accounting, network management, website development etc). It is essentially instructions that tell the computer how to work.



United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime



Uniform Resource Locator

A chain of characters which is assigned a unique address to each of the documents of the World Wide Web.


Universal Serial Bus

A standard that defines the protocols for communication, connection and power supply for devices that are connected to computers.



A computer virus is a type of computer program what replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When it replicates those areas are said to be ‘infected’.



Voice over Internet Protocol

A method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over IP networks. It is also called IP telephony.



Virtual private network

Extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across other networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Encryption is common to a VPN connection.

WLAN networks

Wireless Local Area Network

Links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method and usually providing a connection to access the wider internet.



World Wide Web

Is the universe of network-accessible information (ie. all resources and users on the internet that are using HTTP).